hereditary material in living organism is deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA)molecule.DNA structure exist as a double stranded,coiled into the shape of double helix .unit of discrete traits is called gene. genes are set in chromosomes,chromosomes itself is a sructure of DNA and protein that is found in nucleus. the set up of DNA and protein combination into chromosomes iis called chromatin .a place in a chromosome where gene exist is called locus.

there are two types os chromosomes in organism , which are:

  1. somatic chromosome (autosome )which does not determine sexsual characteristic
  2. sex chromosome (gonosome or alosome) which determines sexsual characteristic. for example, there are  22 pairs of autosome and a pair of gonosome in human cell. human gonosome consist of  X chomosome and Y chromosome . if the pair of gonosome is XY ,then the individual is male.  however, if the pair of gonosome is XX, then the individual is female

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